Showing posts with label GATE 2016 Syllabus. Show all posts
Showing posts with label GATE 2016 Syllabus. Show all posts

Sunday, August 2, 2015

GATE 2016 Metallurgical Engineering (MT) Syllabus

GATE 2016 General Aptitude Syllabus - Common for ALL Papers

Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrices and Determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.
Calculus: Limit, continuity and differentiability; Partial derivatives; Maxima and minima; Sequences and series; Test for convergence; Fourier series.
Vector Calculus: Gradient; Divergence and Curl; Line, Surface and volume integrals; Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
Differential Equations: Linear and non-linear first order ODEs; Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients; Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations; Laplace transforms; PDEs –Laplace, one dimensional heat and wave equations.
Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Random variables; Poisson, normal and binomial distributions; Correlation and regression analysis.
Numerical Methods: Solutions of linear and non-linear (Bisection, Secant, NewtonRaphson methods) algebraic equations; integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule; single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

Also Check: GATE 2016 Pattern of Question Paper and Marking Scheme

Section 2: Thermodynamics and Rate Processes

Laws of thermodynamics, activity, equilibrium constant, applications to metallurgical systems, solutions, phase equilibria, Ellingham and phase stability diagrams, thermodynamics of surfaces, interfaces and defects, adsorption and segregation; basic kinetic laws, order of reactions, rate constants and rate limiting steps; principles of electro chemistry- single electrode potential, electrochemical cells and polarizations, aqueous corrosion and protection of metals, galvanic corrosion, crevice corrosion, pitting corrosion, intergranular corrosion, selective leaching, oxidation and high temperature corrosion – characterization and control; heat transfer – conduction, convection and heat transfer coefficient relations, radiation, mass transfer – diffusion and Fick’s laws, mass transfer coefficients; momentum transfer – concepts of viscosity, shell balances, Bernoulli’s equation, friction factors.

Section 3: Extractive Metallurgy

Minerals of economic importance, comminution techniques, size classification, flotation, gravity and other methods of mineral processing; agglomeration, pyro-, hydro-, and electro-metallurgical processes; material and energy balances; principles and processes for the extraction of non-ferrous metals – aluminium, copper, zinc, lead, magnesium, nickel, titanium and other rare metals; iron and steel making – principles, role structure and properties of slags, metallurgical coke, blast furnace, direct reduction processes, primary and secondary steel making, ladle metallurgy operations including deoxidation, desulphurization, sulphide shape control, inert gas rinsing and vacuum reactors; secondary refining processes including AOD, VAD, VOD, VAR and ESR; ingot and continuous casting; stainless steel making, furnaces and refractories.

Section 4: Physical Metallurgy

Crystal structure and bonding characteristics of metals, alloys, ceramics and polymers, structure of surfaces and interfaces, nano-crystalline and amorphous structures; solid solutions; solidification; phase transformation and binary phase diagrams; principles of heat treatment of steels, cast iron and aluminium alloys; surface treatments; recovery, recrystallization and grain growth; structure and properties of industrially important ferrous and non-ferrous alloys; elements of X-ray and electron diffraction; principles of optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy; industrial ceramics, polymers and composites; introduction to electronic basis of thermal, optical, electrical and magnetic properties of materials; introduction to electronic and opto-electronic materials.

Section 5: Mechanical Metallurgy

Elasticity, yield criteria and plasticity; defects in crystals; elements of dislocation theory – types of dislocations, slip and twinning, source and multiplication of dislocations, stress fields around dislocations, partial dislocations, dislocation interactions and reactions; strengthening mechanisms; tensile, fatigue and creep behaviour; superplasticity; fracture – Griffith theory, basic concepts of linear elastic and elastoplastic fracture mechanics, ductile to brittle transition, fracture toughness; failure analysis; mechanical testing – tension, compression, torsion, hardness, impact, creep, fatigue, fracture toughness and formability.

Section 6: Manufacturing Processes

Metal casting – patterns and moulds including mould design involving feeding, gating and risering, melting, casting practices in sand casting, permanent mould casting, investment casting and shell moulding, casting defects and repair; Hot, warm and cold working of metals; Metal forming – fundamentals of metal forming processes of rolling, forging, extrusion, wire drawing and sheet metal forming, defects in forming; Metal joining – soldering, brazing and welding, common welding processes of shielded metal arc welding, gas metal arc welding, gas tungsten arc welding and submerged arc welding; Welding metallurgy, problems associated with welding of steels and aluminium alloys, defects in welded joints; Powder metallurgy – production of powders, compaction and sintering; NDT using dyepenetrant, ultrasonic, radiography, eddy current, acoustic emission and magnetic particle methods. 

GATE 2016 Mining Engineering (MN) Syllabus

GATE 2016 General Aptitude Syllabus - Common for ALL Papers

Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrices and Determinants; Systems of linear equations; Eigen values and Eigen vectors.
Calculus: Limit, continuity and differentiability; Partial Derivatives; Maxima and minima; Sequences and series; Test for convergence; Fourier series.
Vector Calculus: Gradient; Divergence and Curl; Line; surface and volume integrals; Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
Diferential Equations: Linear and non-linear first order ODEs; Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients; Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations.
Probability and Statistics: Measures of central tendency; Random variables; Poisson, normal and binomial distributions; Correlation and regression analysis.
Numerical Methods: Solutions of linear algebraic equations; Integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule; Single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

Also Check: GATE 2016 Pattern of Question Paper and Marking Scheme

Section 2: Mine Development and Surveying

Mine Development: Methods of access to deposits; Underground drivages; Drilling methods and machines; Explosives, blasting devices and practices.
Mine Surveying: Levels and leveling, theodolite, tacheometry, triangulation; Contouring; Errors and adjustments; Correlation; Underground surveying; Curves; Photogrammetry; Field astronomy; EDM and Total Station; Introductory GPS .

Section 3: Geomechanics and Ground Control

Engineering Mechanics: Equivalent force systems; Equations of equilibrium; Two dimensional frames and trusses; Free body diagrams; Friction forces; Particle kinematics and dynamics; Beam analysis.
Geomechanics: Geo-technical properties of rocks; Rock mass classification; Instrumentation and stress measurement techniques; Theories of rock failure; Ground vibrations; Stress distribution around mine openings; Subsidence; Rock bursts and coal bumps; Slope stability.
Ground Control: Design of pillars; Roof supporting systems; Mine filling.

Section 4: Mining Methods and Machinery

Mining Methods: Surface mining: layout, development, loading, transportation and mechanization, continuous surface mining systems; Underground coal mining: bord and pillar systems, room and pillar mining, longwall mining, thick seam mining methods; highwall mining; Underground metal mining: open, supported and caved stoping methods, stope mechanization, ore handling systems.
Mining Machinery: Generation and transmission of mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic power; Materials handling: haulages, conveyors, face and development machinery, hoisting systems, pumps, crushers.

Section 5: Surface Environment, Mine Ventilation, and Underground Hazards

Surface Environment: Air, water and soil pollution : Standards of quality, causes and dispersion of contamination, and control; Noise; Land reclamation.
Mine Ventilation: Underground atmosphere; Heat load sources and thermal environment, air cooling; Mechanics of air flow, distribution, natural and mechanical ventilation; Mine fans and their usage; Auxiliary ventilation; Ventilation planning; Ventilation networks.
Subsurface Hazards: Mine Gases. Underground hazards from fires, explosions, dust and inundation; Rescue apparatus and practices; Safety in mines; Accident data analysis; Mine lighting; Mine legislation; Occupational safety.

Section 6: Mine Economics, Mine Planning, Systems Engineering

Mine Economics: Mineral resource classification; Discounted cash flow analysis; Mine valuation; Mine investment analysis; Mineral taxation.
Mine Planning: Sampling methods, practices and interpretation; Reserve estimation techniques: Basics of geostatistics and quality control; Optimization of facility location; Work-study.
Systems Engineering: Concepts of reliability; Reliability of simple systems; Maintainability and availability; Linear programming, transportation and assignment problems; Network analysis; Inventory models; Queueing theory; Basics of simulation.

GATE 2016 Mathematics (MA) Syllabus

GATE 2016 General Aptitude Syllabus - Common for ALL Papers

Section 1: Linear Algebra

Finite dimensional vector spaces; Linear transformations and their matrix representations, rank; systems of linear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, minimal polynomial, Cayley-Hamilton Theorem, diagonalization, Jordan-canonical form, Hermitian, SkewHermitian and unitary matrices; Finite dimensional inner product spaces, Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization process, self-adjoint operators, definite forms.

Section 2: Complex Analysis

Analytic functions, conformal mappings, bilinear transformations; complex integration: Cauchy’s integral theorem and formula; Liouville’s theorem, maximum modulus principle; Zeros and singularities; Taylor and Laurent’s series; residue theorem and applications for evaluating real integrals.

Section 3: Real Analysis

Sequences and series of functions, uniform convergence, power series, Fourier series, functions of several variables, maxima, minima; Riemann integration, multiple integrals, line, surface and volume integrals, theorems of Green, Stokes and Gauss; metric spaces, compactness, completeness, Weierstrass approximation theorem; Lebesgue measure, measurable functions; Lebesgue integral, Fatou’s lemma, dominated convergence theorem.

Also Check: GATE 2016 Pattern of Question Paper and Marking Scheme

Section 4: Ordinary Differential Equations

First order ordinary differential equations, existence and uniqueness theorems for initial value problems, systems of linear first order ordinary differential equations, linear ordinary differential equations of higher order with constant coefficients; linear second order ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients; method of Laplace transforms for solving ordinary differential equations, series solutions (power series, Frobenius method); Legendre and Bessel functions and their orthogonal properties.

Section 5: Algebra

Groups, subgroups, normal subgroups, quotient groups and homomorphism theorems, automorphisms; cyclic groups and permutation groups, Sylow’s theorems and their applications; Rings, ideals, prime and maximal ideals, quotient rings, unique factorization domains, Principle ideal domains, Euclidean domains, polynomial rings and irreducibility criteria; Fields, finite fields, field extensions.

Section 6: Functional Analysis

Normed linear spaces, Banach spaces, Hahn-Banach extension theorem, open mapping and closed graph theorems, principle of uniform boundedness; Inner-product spaces, Hilbert spaces, orthonormal bases, Riesz representation theorem, bounded linear operators.

Section 7: Numerical Analysis

Numerical solution of algebraic and transcendental equations: bisection, secant method, Newton-Raphson method, fixed point iteration; interpolation: error of polynomial interpolation, Lagrange, Newton interpolations; numerical differentiation; numerical integration: Trapezoidal and Simpson rules; numerical solution of systems of linear equations: direct methods (Gauss elimination, LU decomposition); iterative methods (Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel); numerical solution of ordinary differential equations: initial value problems: Euler’s method, Runge-Kutta methods of order 2.

Section 8: Partial Differential Equations

Linear and quasilinear first order partial differential equations, method of characteristics; second order linear equations in two variables and their classification; Cauchy, Dirichlet and Neumann problems; solutions of Laplace, wave in two dimensional Cartesian coordinates, Interior and exterior Dirichlet problems in polar coordinates; Separation of variables method for solving wave and diffusion equations in one space variable; Fourier series and Fourier transform and Laplace transform methods of solutions for the above equations.

Section 9: Topology

Basic concepts of topology, bases, subbases, subspace topology, order topology, product topology, connectedness, compactness, countability and separation axioms, Urysohn’s Lemma.

Section 10: Probability and Statistics

Probability space, conditional probability, Bayes theorem, independence, Random variables, joint and conditional distributions, standard probability distributions and their properties (Discrete uniform, Binomial, Poisson, Geometric, Negative binomial, Normal, Exponential, Gamma, Continuous uniform, Bivariate normal, Multinomial), expectation, conditional expectation, moments; Weak and strong law of large numbers, central limit theorem; Sampling distributions, UMVU estimators, maximum likelihood estimators; Interval estimation; Testing of hypotheses, standard parametric tests based on normal, , , distributions; Simple linear regression.

Section 11: Linear programming

Linear programming problem and its formulation, convex sets and their properties, graphical method, basic feasible solution, simplex method, big-M and two phase methods; infeasible and unbounded LPP’s, alternate optima; Dual problem and duality theorems, dual simplex method and its application in post optimality analysis; Balanced and unbalanced transportation problems, Vogel’s approximation method for solving transportation problems; Hungarian method for solving assignment problems.

GATE 2016 Instrumentation Engineering (IN) Syllabus

GATE 2016 General Aptitude Syllabus - Common for ALL Papers

Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.
Calculus: Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, multiple integrals, Fourier series, vector identities, line, surface and volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
Differential equations: First order equation (linear and nonlinear), higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, initial and boundary value problems, solution of partial differential equations: variable separable method.
Analysis of complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula, Taylor’s and Laurent’s series, residue theorem, solution of integrals.
Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, conditional probability, mean, median, mode and standard deviation, random variables, discrete and continuous distributions: normal, Poisson and binomial distributions.
Numerical Methods: Matrix inversion, solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, iterative methods for solving differential equations, numerical integration, regression and correlation analysis.

Instrumentation Engineering

Also Check: GATE 2016 Pattern of Question Paper and Marking Scheme

Section 2: Electrical Circuits

Voltage and current sources: independent, dependent, ideal and practical; v-i relationships of resistor, inductor, mutual inductor and capacitor; transient analysis of RLC circuits with dc excitation. Kirchoff’s laws, mesh and nodal analysis, superposition, Thevenin, Norton, maximum power transfer and reciprocity theorems. Peak-, average- and rms values of ac quantities; apparent-, active- and reactive powers; phasor analysis, impedance and admittance; series and parallel resonance, locus diagrams, realization of basic filters with R, L and C elements. One-port and two-port networks, driving point impedance and admittance, open-, and short circuit parameters.

Section 3: Signals and Systems

Periodic, aperiodic and impulse signals; Laplace, Fourier and z-transforms; transfer function, frequency response of first and second order linear time invariant systems, impulse response of systems; convolution, correlation. Discrete time system: impulse response, frequency response, pulse transfer function; DFT and FFT; basics of IIR and FIR filters.

Section 4: Control Systems

Feedback principles, signal flow graphs, transient response, steady-state-errors, Bode plot, phase and gain margins, Routh and Nyquist criteria, root loci, design of lead, lag and lead-lag compensators, state-space representation of systems; time-delay systems; mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic system components, synchro pair, servo and stepper motors, servo valves; on-off, P, P-I, P-I-D, cascade, feedforward, and ratio controllers.

Section 5: Analog Electronics

Characteristics and applications of diode, Zener diode, BJT and MOSFET; small signal analysis of transistor circuits, feedback amplifiers. Characteristics of operational amplifiers; applications of opamps: difference amplifier, adder, subtractor, integrator, differentiator, instrumentation amplifier, precision rectifier, active filters and other circuits. Oscillators, signal generators, voltage controlled oscillators and phase locked loop.

Section 6: Digital Electronics

Combinational logic circuits, minimization of Boolean functions. IC families: TTL and CMOS. Arithmetic circuits, comparators, Schmitt trigger, multi-vibrators, sequential circuits, flipflops, shift registers, timers and counters; sample-and-hold circuit, multiplexer, analog-todigital (successive approximation, integrating, flash and sigma-delta) and digital-toanalog converters (weighted R, R-2R ladder and current steering logic). Characteristics of ADC and DAC (resolution, quantization, significant bits, conversion/settling time); basics of number systems, 8-bit microprocessor and microcontroller: applications, memory and input-output interfacing; basics of data acquisition systems.

Section 7: Measurements

SI units, systematic and random errors in measurement, expression of uncertainty - accuracy and precision index, propagation of errors. PMMC, MI and dynamometer type instruments; dc potentiometer; bridges for measurement of R, L and C, Q-meter. Measurement of voltage, current and power in single and three phase circuits; ac and dc current probes; true rms meters, voltage and current scaling, instrument transformers, timer/counter, time, phase and frequency measurements, digital voltmeter, digital multimeter; oscilloscope, shielding and grounding.

Section 8: Sensors and Industrial Instrumentation

Resistive-, capacitive-, inductive-, piezoelectric-, Hall effect sensors and associated signal conditioning circuits; transducers for industrial instrumentation: displacement (linear and angular), velocity, acceleration, force, torque, vibration, shock, pressure (including low pressure), flow (differential pressure, variable area, electromagnetic, ultrasonic, turbine and open channel flow meters) temperature (thermocouple, bolometer, RTD (3/4 wire), thermistor, pyrometer and semiconductor); liquid level, pH, conductivity and viscosity measurement.

Section 9: Communication and Optical Instrumentation

Amplitude- and frequency modulation and demodulation; Shannon's sampling theorem, pulse code modulation; frequency and time division multiplexing, amplitude-, phase-, frequency-, pulse shift keying for digital modulation; optical sources and detectors: LED, laser, photo-diode, light dependent resistor and their characteristics; interferometer: applications in metrology; basics of fiber optic sensing. 

GATE 2016 Geology and Geophysics (GG) Syllabus

GATE 2016 General Aptitude Syllabus - Common for ALL Papers

Common Section

Earth and Planetary system - size, shape, internal structure and composition of the earth; concept of isostasy; elements of seismology – body and surface waves, propagation of body waves in the earth’s interior; Gravitational field of the Earth; geomagnetism and paleomagnetism; continental drift; plate tectonics – relationship with earthquakes, volcanism and mountain building; continental and oceanic crust – composition, structure and thickness. Weathering and soil formation; landforms created by river, wind, glacier, ocean and volcanoes. Basic structural geology - stress, strain and material response; brittle and ductile deformation; nomenclature and classification of folds and faults. Crystallography – basic crystal symmetry and concept of point groups. Mineralogy – silicate crystal structure and determinative mineralogy of common rock forming minerals. Petrology – mineralogy and classification of common igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Geological time scale - geochronology and absolute time. Stratigraphic principles; major stratigraphic divisions of India. Geological and geographical distribution of mineral, coal and petroleum resources of India. Introduction to remote sensing. Engineering properties of rocks and soils. Ground water geology. Principles and applications of gravity, magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic, seismic and radiometric methods of prospecting for oil, mineral and ground water; introductory well logging.

Also Check: GATE 2016 Pattern of Question Paper and Marking Scheme

Part – A: Geology

Geomorphic processes and agents; development and evolution of landforms; slope and drainage; processes in deep oceanic and near-shore regions; quantitative and applied geomorphology. Mechanism of rock deformation; primary and secondary structures; geometry and genesis of folds, faults, joints and unconformities; cleavage, schistosity and lineation; methods of projection; tectonites and their significance; shear zones; superposed folding; basement-cover relationship. Crystallography - symmetry, forms and twinning; crystal chemistry; optical mineralogy, classification of minerals, diagnostic physical and optical properties of rock - forming minerals. Cosmic abundance of elements; meteorites; geochemical evolution of the earth; geochemical cycles; distribution of major, minor and trace elements in crust and mantle; elements of geochemical thermodynamics; isotope geochemistry; geochemistry of waters including solution equilibria and water-rock interaction. Igneous rocks – classification, forms and textures; magmatic differentiation; binary and ternary phase diagrams; major and trace elements as monitors of partial melting and magma evolutionary processes. Sedimentary rocks – texture and structure; sedimentary processes and environments, sedimentary facies, provencance and basin analysis. Metamorphic rocks – structures and textures. Physico-chemical conditions of metamorphism and concept of metamorphic facies, grade and baric types; metamorphism of pelitic, mafic and impure carbonate rocks; role of fluids in metamorphism; metamorphic P-T-t paths and their tectonic significance. Association of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks with tectonic setting. Igneous and metamorphic provinces and important sedimentary basins of India. Morphology, classification and geological significance of important invertebrates, vertebrates, plant fossils and microfossils. Principles of Stratigraphy and concepts of correlation – lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy. Indian stratigraphy – Precambrian and Phanerozoic. Overview of Himalayan Geology. Ore-mineralogy and optical properties of ore minerals; ore forming processes vis-à- vis ore-rock association (magmatic, hydrothermal, sedimentary, supergene and metamorphogenic ores); fluid inclusions as an ore genetic tool. Coal and petroleum geology; marine mineral resources. Prospecting and exploration of economic mineral deposits - sampling, ore reserve estimation, geostatistics, mining methods. Ore dressing and mineral economics. Origin and distribution of mineral, fossil and nuclear fuel deposits in India. Engineering properties of rocks and soils; rocks as construction materials; role of geology in the construction of engineering structures including dams, tunnels and excavation sites; natural hazards. Ground water geology – exploration, well hydraulics and water quality. Basic principles of remote sensing – energy sources and radiation principles, atmospheric absorption, interaction of energy with earth’s surface, aerial-photo interpretation, multispectral remote sensing in visible, infrared, thermal IR and microwave regions, digital processing of satellite images. GIS – basic concepts, raster and vector mode operations.

Part - B: Geophysics

The earth as a planet; different motions of the earth; gravity field of the earth, Clairaut’s theorem, size and shape of earth; geomagnetic field, paleomagnetism; Geothermics and heat flow; seismology and interior of the earth; variation of density, velocity, pressure, temperature, electrical and magnetic properties of the earth; earthquakes-causes and measurements, magnitude and intensity, focal mechanisms, earthquake quantification, source characteristics, seismotectonics and seismic hazards; digital seismographs, Scalar and vector potential fields; Laplace, Maxwell and Helmholtz equations for solution of different types of boundary value problems in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates; Green’s theorem; Image theory; integral equations in potential theory; Eikonal equation and Ray theory. Absolute and relative gravity measurements; Gravimeters, Land, airborne, shipborne and bore-hole gravity surveys; various corrections for gravity data reduction – free air, Bouguer and isostatic anomalies; density estimates of rocks; regional and residual gravity separation; principle of equivalent stratum; data enhancement techniques, upward and downward continuation; derivative maps, wavelength filtering; preparation and analysis of gravity maps; gravity anomalies and their interpretation – anomalies due to geometrical and irregular shaped bodies, depth rules, calculation of mass. – Elements of Earth’s magnetic field, units of measurement, magnetic susceptibility of rocks and measurements, magnetometers, Land, airborne and marine magnetic surveys, Various corrections applied to magnetic data, IGRF, Reduction to Pole transformation, Poisson’s relation of gravity and magnetic potential field, preparation of magnetic maps, upward and downward continuation, magnetic anomalies-geometrical shaped bodies, depth estimates, Image processing concepts in processing of magnetic anomaly maps; Interpretation of processed magnetic anomaly data. Applications of gravity and magnetic methods for mineral and oil exploration. Conduction of electricity through rocks, electrical conductivities of metals, nonmetals, rock forming minerals and different rocks, concepts of D.C. resistivity measurement, various electrode configurations for resistivity sounding and profiling, application of filter theory, Type-curves over multi-layered structures, Dar-Zarrouck parameters, reduction of layers, coefficient of anisotropy, interpretation of resistivity field data, equivalence and suppression, self-potential and its origin, field measurement, Induced polarization, time and frequency domain IP measurements; interpretation and applications of IP, ground-water exploration, mineral exploration, environmental and engineering applications. Basic concept of EM induction in the earth, Skin-depth, elliptic polarization, inphase and quadrature components, Various EM methods, measurements in different source-receiver configurations,. Earth’s natural electromagnetic field, tellurics, magneto-tellurics; geomagnetic depth sounding principles, electromagnetic profiling, Time domain EM method, EM scale modeling, processing of EM data and interpretation. Geological applications including groundwater, mineral and hydrocarbon exploration. Seismic methods of prospecting; Elastic properties of earth materials; Reflection, refraction and CDP surveys; land and marine seismic sources, generation and propagation of elastic waves, velocity – depth models, geophones, hydrophones, recording instruments (DFS), digital formats, field layouts, seismic noises and noise profile analysis, optimum geophone grouping, noise cancellation by shot and geophone arrays, 2D and 3D seismic data acquisition, processing and interpretation; CDP stacking charts, binning, filtering, dip-moveout, static and dynamic corrections, Digital seismic data processing, seismic deconvolution and migration methods, attribute analysis, bright and dim spots, seismic stratigraphy, high resolution seismics, VSP, AVO. Reservoir geophysics. Geophysical signal processing, sampling theorem, aliasing, Nyquist frequency, Fourier series, periodic waveform, Fourier and Hilbert transform, Z-transform and wavelet transform; power spectrum, delta function, auto correlation, cross correlation, convolution, deconvolution, principles of digital filters, windows, poles and zeros. Principles and techniques of geophysical well-logging, SP, resistivity, induction, gamma ray, neutron, density, sonic, temperature, dip meter, caliper, nuclear magnetic, cement bond logging, micro-logs. Quantitative evaluation of formations from well logs; well hydraulics and application of geophysical methods for groundwater study; application of bore hole geophysics in ground water, mineral and oil exploration. Radioactive methods of prospecting and assaying of mineral (radioactive and non radioactive) deposits, half-life, decay constant, radioactive equilibrium, G M counter, scintillation detector, semiconductor devices, application of radiometric for exploration, assaying and radioactive waste disposal. Basic concepts of forward and inverse problems, Ill-posedness of inverse problems, condition number, non-uniqueness and stability of solutions; L1, L2 and Lp norms, overdetermined, underdetermined and mixed determined inverse problems, quasilinear and non-linear methods including Tikhonov’s regularization method, Singular Value Decomposion, Backus-Gilbert method, simulated annealing, genetic algorithms and artificial neural network.

GATE 2016 Ecology and Evolution (EY) Syllabus

GATE 2016 General Aptitude Syllabus - Common for ALL Papers

Section 1: Ecology

Population ecology; metapopulation dynamics; growth rates; density independent growth; density dependent growth; niche concept; Species interactions: Plant-animal interactions; mutualism, commensalism, competition and predation; trophic interactions; functional ecology; ecophysiology; behavioural ecology; Community ecology: Community assembly, organization and evolution; biodiversity: species richness, evenness and diversity indices; endemism; species-area relationships; Ecosystem structure, function and services; nutrient cycles; biomes; habitat ecology; primary and secondary productivity; invasive species; global and climate change; applied ecology.

Also Check: GATE 2016 Pattern of Question Paper and Marking Scheme

Section 2: Evolution

Origin, evolution and diversification of life; natural selection; levels of selection. Types of selection (stabilizing, directional etc.); sexual selection; genetic drift; gene flow; adaptation; convergence; species concepts; Life history strategies; adaptive radiation; biogeography and evolutionary ecology; Origin of genetic variation; Mendelian genetics; polygenic traits, linkage and recombination; epistasis, gene-environment interaction; heritability; population genetics; Molecular evolution; molecular clocks; systems of classification: cladistics and phenetics; molecular systematics; gene expression and evolution.

Section 3: Mathematics and Quantitative Ecology

Mathematics and statistics in ecology; Simple functions (linear, quadratic, exponential, logarithmic, etc); concept of derivatives and slope of a function; permutations and combinations; basic probability (probability of random events; sequences of events, etc); frequency distributions and their descriptive statistics (mean, variance, coefficient of variation, correlation, etc). Statistical hypothesis testing: Concept of p-value; Type I and Type II error, test statistics like t-test and Chi-square test; basics of linear regression and ANOVA.

Section 4: Behavioural Ecology

Classical ethology; neuroethology; evolutionary ethology; chemical, acoustic and visual signaling Mating systems; sexual dimorphism; mate choice; parenting behaviour Competition; aggression; foraging behaviour; predator–prey interactions; Sociobiology: kin selection, altruism, costs and benefits of group-living.

GATE 2016 Zoology (XL-L) Syllabus

GATE 2016 General Aptitude Syllabus - Common for ALL Papers

Section 1: Animal world

Animal diversity, distribution, systematics and classification of animals, phylogenetic

Section 2: Evolution

Origin and history of life on earth, theories of evolution, natural selection,
adaptation, speciation.

Section 3: Genetics

Basic Principles of inheritance, molecular basis of heredity, sex determination and
sex-linked characteristics, cytoplasmic inheritance, linkage, recombination and
mapping of genes in eukaryotes, population genetics.

Section 4: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates; replication, transcription and
translation; regulation of gene expression, organization of genome, Kreb’s cycle,
glycolysis, enzyme catalysis, hormones and their actions, vitamins.

Also Check: GATE 2016 Pattern of Question Paper and Marking Scheme

Section 5: Cell Biology

Structure of cell, cellular organelles and their structure and function, cell cycle, cell
division, chromosomes and chromatin structure.

Section 6: Gene expression in Eukaryotes

Eukaryotic gene organization and expression (Basic principles of signal

Section 7: Animal Anatomy and Physiology

Comparative physiology, the respiratory system, circulatory system, digestive
system, the nervous system, the excretory system, the endocrine system, the
reproductive system, the skeletal system, osmoregulation.

Section 8: Parasitology and Immunology

Nature of parasite, host-parasite relation, protozoan and helminthic parasites, the
immune response, cellular and humoral immune response, evolution of the immune

Section 9: Development Biology

Embryonic development, cellular differentiation, organogenesis, metamorphosis,
genetic basis of development, stem cells.

Section 10: Ecology

The ecosystem, habitats, the food chain, population dynamics, species diversity,
zoogerography, biogeochemical cycles, conservation biology.

Section 11: Animal Behaviour

Types of behaviours, courtship, mating and territoriality, instinct, learning and
memory, social behaviour across the animal taxa, communication, pheromones,
evolution of animal behaviour.

GATE 2016 Microbiology (XL-K) Syllabus

GATE 2016 General Aptitude Syllabus - Common for ALL Papers

Section 1: Historical Perspective

Discovery of microbial world; Landmark discoveries relevant to the field of microbiology; Controversy over spontaneous generation; Role of microorganisms in transformation of organic matter and in the causation of diseases.

Section 2: Methods in Microbiology

Pure culture techniques; Theory and practice of sterilization; Principles of microbial nutrition; Enrichment culture techniques for isolation of microorganisms; Light-, phase contrast- and electron-microscopy.

Section 3: Microbial Taxonomy and Diversity

Bacteria, Archea and their broad classification; Eukaryotic microbes: Yeasts, molds and protozoa; Viruses and their classification; Molecular approaches to microbial taxonomy.

Also Check: GATE 2016 Pattern of Question Paper and Marking Scheme

Section 4: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells: Structure and Function

Prokaryotic Cells: cell walls, cell membranes, mechanisms of solute transport across membranes, Flagella and Pili, Capsules, Cell inclusions like endospores and gas vesicles; Eukaryotic cell organelles: Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria and chloroplasts.

Section 5: Microbial Growth

Definition of growth; Growth curve; Mathematical expression of exponential growth phase; Measurement of growth and growth yields; Synchronous growth; Continuous culture; Effect of environmental factors on growth.

Section 6: Control of Micro-organisms

Effect of physical and chemical agents; Evaluation of effectiveness of antimicrobial agents.

Section 7: Microbial Metabolism

Energetics: redox reactions and electron carriers; An overview of metabolism; Glycolysis; Pentose-phosphate pathway; Entner-Doudoroff pathway; Glyoxalate pathway; The citric acid cycle; Fermentation; Aerobic and anaerobic respiration; Chemolithotrophy; Photosynthesis; Calvin cycle; Biosynthetic pathway for fatty acids synthesis; Common regulatory mechanisms in synthesis of amino acids; Regulation of major metabolic pathways.

Section 8: Microbial Diseases and Host Pathogen Interaction

Normal microbiota; Classification of infectious diseases; Reservoirs of infection; Nosocomial infection; Emerging infectious diseases; Mechanism of microbial pathogenicity; Nonspecific defense of host; Antigens and antibodies; Humoral and cell mediated immunity; Vaccines; Immune deficiency; Human diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, and pathogenic fungi. Section 8: Chemotherapy/Antibiotics General characteristics of antimicrobial drugs; Antibiotics: Classification, mode of action and resistance; Antifungal and antiviral drugs.

Section 9: Microbial Genetics

Types of mutation; UV and chemical mutagens; Selection of mutants; Ames test for mutagenesis; Bacterial genetic system: transformation, conjugation, transduction, recombination, plasmids, transposons; DNA repair; Regulation of gene expression: repression and induction; Operon model; Bacterial genome with special reference to E.coli; Phage λ and its life cycle; RNA phages; RNA viruses; Retroviruses; Basic concept of microbial genomics.

Section 10: Microbial Ecology

Microbial interactions; Carbon, sulphur and nitrogen cycles; Soil microorganisms associated with vascular plants.

GATE 2016 Botony (XL-J) Syllabus

GATE 2016 General Aptitude Syllabus - Common for ALL Papers

Section 1: Plant Systematics

Major systems of classification, plant groups, phylogenetic relationships and molecular systematics.

Section 2: Plant Anatomy

Plant cell structure and its components; cell wall and membranes; organization, organelles, cytoskeleton, anatomy of root, stem and leaves, floral parts, embryo and young seedlings, meristems, vascular system, their ontogeny, structure and functions, secondary growth in plants and stellar organization.

Section 3: Morphogenesis & Development

Cell cycle, cell division, life cycle of an angiosperm, pollination, fertilization, embryogenesis, seed formation, seed storage proteins, seed dormancy and germination. Concept of cellular totipotency, clonal propagation; organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis, artificial seed, somaclonal variation, secondary metabolism in plant cell culture, embryo culture, in vitro fertilization.

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Section 4: Physiology and Biochemistry

Plant water relations, transport of minerals and solutes, stress physiology, stomatal physiology, signal transduction, N2 metabolism, photosynthesis, photorespiration; respiration, Flowering: photoperiodism and vernalization, biochemical mechanisms involved in flowering; molecular mechanism of senencensce and aging, biosynthesis, mechanism of action and physiological effects of plant growth regulators, structure and function of biomolecules, (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acid), enzyme kinetics.

Section 5: Genetics

Principles of Mendelian inheritance, linkage, recombination, genetic mapping; extrachromosomal inheritance; prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome organization, regulation of gene expression, gene mutation and repair, chromosomal aberrations (numerical and structural), transposons.

Section 6: Plant Breeding and Genetic Modification

Principles, methods – selection, hybridization, heterosis; male sterility, genetic maps and molecular markers, sporophytic and gametophytic self incompability, haploidy, triploidy, somatic cell hybridization, marker-assisted selection, gene transfer methods viz. direct and vector-mediated, plastid transformation, transgenic plants and their application in agriculture, molecular pharming, plantibodies.

Section 7: Economic Botany

A general account of economically and medicinally important plants- cereals, pulses, plants yielding fibers, timber, sugar, beverages, oils, rubber, pigments, dyes, gums, drugs and narcotics. Economic importance of algae, fungi, lichen and bacteria.

Section 8: Plant Pathology

Nature and classification of plant diseases, diseases of important crops caused by fungi, bacteria,nematodes and viruses, and their control measures, mechanism(s) of pathogenesis and resistance, molecular detection of pathogens; plant-microbe beneficial interactions.

Section 9: Ecology and Environment

Ecosystems – types, dynamics, degradation, ecological succession; food chains and energy flow; vegetation types of the world, pollution and global warming, speciation and extinction, conservation strategies, cryopreservation, phytoremediation.

GATE 2016 Biochemistry (XL-I) Syllabus

GATE 2016 General Aptitude Syllabus - Common for ALL Papers

Section 1:

Organization of life; Importance of water; Structure and function of biomolecules: Amino acids, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic acids; Protein structure, folding and function: Myoglobin, Hemoglobin, Lysozyme, Ribonuclease A, Carboxypeptidase and Chymotrypsin.

Section 2:

Enzyme kinetics including its regulation and inhibition, Vitamins and Coenzymes ; Metabolism and bioenergetics; Generation and utilization of ATP; Metabolic pathways and their regulation: glycolysis, TCA cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, oxidative phosphorylation,gluconeogenesis, glycogen and fatty acid metabolism; Metabolism of Nitrogen containing compounds: nitrogen fixation, amino acids and nucleotides. Photosynthesis: Calvin cycle.

Section 3:

Biochemical separation techniques: ion exchange, size exclusion and affinity chromatography, Characterization of biomolecules by electrophoresis, UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy and Mass spectrometry.

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Section 4:

Cell structure and organelles; Biological membranes; Transport across membranes; Signal transduction; Hormones and neurotransmitters.

Section 5:

DNA replication, transcription and translation; Biochemical regulation of gene expression; Recombinant DNA technology and applications: PCR, site directed mutagenesis and DNA-microarray.

Section 6:

Immune system: Active and passive immunity; Complement system; Antibody structure, function and diversity; Cells of the immune system: T, B and macrophages; T and B cell activation; Major histocompatibilty complex; T cell receptor; Immunological techniques: Immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis, RIA and ELISA.

GATE 2016 Chemistry (XL-H) Syllabus

GATE 2016 General Aptitude Syllabus - Common for ALL Papers

Section 1: Atomic Structure and Periodicity

Planck’s quantum theory, wave particle duality, uncertainty principle, quantum mechanical model of hydrogen atom, electronic configuration of atoms and ions. Periodic table and periodic properties: ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity and atomic size.

Section 2: Structure and Bonding

Ionic and covalent bonding, MO and VB approaches for diatomic molecules, VSEPR theory and shape of molecules, hybridization, resonance, dipole moment, structure parameters such as bond length, bond angle and bond energy, hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions. Ionic solids, ionic radii and lattice energy (Born‐Haber cycle). HSAB principle.

Section 3: s, p and d Block Elements

Oxides, halides and hydrides of alkali, alkaline earth metals, B, Al, Si, N, P, and S. General characteristics of 3d elements. Coordination complexes: valence bond and crystal field theory, color, geometry, magnetic properties and isomerism.

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Section 4: Chemical Equilibria

Colligative properties of solutions, ionic equilibria in solution, solubility product, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts, pH, buffer and their applications. Equilibrium constants (Kc, Kp and Kx) for homogeneous reactions.

Section 5: Electrochemistry

Conductance, Kohlrausch law, cell potentials, emf, Nernst equation, Galvanic cells, thermodynamic aspects and their applications.

Section 6: Reaction Kinetics

Rate constant, order of reaction, molecularity, activation energy, zero, first and second order kinetics, catalysis and elementary enzyme reactions.

Section 7: Thermodynamics

First law, reversible and irreversible processes, internal energy, enthalpy, Kirchoff equation, heat of reaction, Hess’s law, heat of formation. Second law, entropy, free energy and work function. Gibbs‐Helmholtz equation, Clausius‐Clapeyron equation, free energy change, equilibrium constant and Trouton’s rule. Third law of thermodynamics.

Section 8: Structure-Reactivity Correlations and Organic Reaction Mechanisms

Acids and bases, electronic and steric effects, optical and geometrical isomerism, tautomerism, conformers and concept of aromaticity. Elementary treatment of SN1, SN2, E1 and E2 reactions, Hoffmann and Saytzeff rules, addition reactions, Markownikoff rule and Kharash effect. Aromatic electrophilic substitutions, orientation effect as exemplified by various functional groups. Diels‐Alder, Wittig and hydroboration reactions. Identification of functional groups by chemical tests. 

GATE 2016 Food Technology (XL-M) Syllabus

GATE 2016 General Aptitude Syllabus - Common for ALL Papers

Section 1: Food Chemistry and Nutrition

Carbohydrates: structure and functional properties of mono-, oligo-, & polysaccharides including starch, cellulose, pectic substances and dietary fibre, gelatinization and retrogradation of starch. Proteins: classification and structure of proteins in food, biochemical changes in post mortem and tenderization of muscles. Lipids: classification and structure of lipids, rancidity, polymerization and polymorphism. Pigments: carotenoids, chlorophylls, anthocyanins, tannins and myoglobin. Food flavours: terpenes, esters, aldehydes, ketones and quinines. Enzymes: specificity, simple and inhibition kinetics, coenzymes, enzymatic and nonenzymatic browning. Nutrition: balanced diet, essential amino acids and essential fatty acids, protein efficiency ratio, water soluble and fat soluble vitamins, role of minerals in nutrition, co-factors, anti-nutrients, nutraceuticals, nutrient deficiency diseases. Chemical and biochemical changes: changes occur in foods during different processing.

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Section 2: Food Microbiology

Characteristics of microorganisms: morphology of bacteria, yeast, mold and actinomycetes, spores and vegetative cells, gram-staining. Microbial growth: growth and death kinetics, serial dilution technique. Food spoilage: spoilage microorganisms in different food products including milk, fish, meat, egg, cereals and their products. Toxins from microbes: pathogens and non-pathogens including Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia, Bacillus, Clostridium, and Aspergillus genera. Fermented foods and beverages: curd, yoghurt, cheese, pickles, soya-sauce, sauerkraut, idli, dosa, vinegar, alcoholic beverages and sausage.

Section 3: Food Products Technology

Processing principles: thermal processing, chilling, freezing, dehydration, addition of preservatives and food additives, irradiation, fermentation, hurdle technology, intermediate moisture foods. Food packaging and storage: packaging materials, aseptic packaging, controlled and modified atmosphere storage. Cereal processing and products: milling of rice, wheat, and maize, parboiling of paddy, bread, biscuits, extruded products and ready to eat breakfast cereals. Oil processing: expelling, solvent extraction, refining and hydrogenation. Fruits and vegetables processing: extraction, clarification, concentration and packaging of fruit juice, jam, jelly, marmalade, squash, candies, tomato sauce, ketchup, and puree, potato chips, pickles. Plantation crops processing and products: tea, coffee, cocoa, spice, extraction of essential oils and oleoresins from spices. Milk and milk products processing: pasteurization and sterilization, cream, butter, ghee, icecream, cheese and milk powder. Processing of animal products: drying, canning, and freezing of fish and meat; production of egg powder. Waste utilization: pectin from fruit wastes, uses of by-products from rice milling. Food standards and quality maintenance: FPO, PFA, Agmark, ISI, HACCP, food plant sanitation and cleaning in place (CIP).

Section 4: Food Engineering

Mass and energy balance; Momentum transfer: Flow rate and pressure drop relationships for Newtonian fluids flowing through pipe, Reynolds number. Heat transfer: heat transfer by conduction, convection, radiation, heat exchangers. Mass transfer: molecular diffusion and Fick’s law, conduction and convective mass transfer, permeability through single and multilayer films. Mechanical operations: size reduction of solids, high pressure homogenization, filtration, centrifugation, settling, sieving, mixing & agitation of liquid. Thermal operations: thermal sterilization, evaporation of liquid foods, hot air drying of solids, spray and freeze-drying, freezing and crystallization. Mass transfer operations: psychrometry, humidification and dehumidification operations.

GATE 2016 Polymer Science and Engineering (XE-F) Syllabus

GATE 2016 General Aptitude Syllabus - Common for ALL Papers

Section 1: Chemistry of high polymers

Monomers, functionality, degree of polymerizations, classification of polymers, glass transition, melting transition, criteria for rubberiness, polymerization methods: addition and condensation; their kinetics, metallocene polymers and other newer techniques of polymerization, copolymerization, monomer reactivity ratios and its significance, kinetics, different copolymers, random, alternating, azeotropic copolymerization, block and graft copolymers, techniques for copolymerizationbulk, solution, suspension, emulsion.

Section 2: Polymer Characterization

Solubility and swelling, concept of average molecular weight, determination of number average, weight average, viscosity average and Z-average molecular weights, polymer crystallinity, analysis of polymers using IR, XRD, thermal (DSC, DMTA, TGA), microscopic (optical and electronic) techniques.

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Section 3: Synthesis and properties

Commodity and general purpose thermoplastics: PE, PP, PS, PVC, Polyesters, Acrylic, PU polymers. Engineering Plastics: Nylon, PC, PBT, PSU, PPO, ABS, Fluoropolymers Thermosetting polymers: PF, MF, UF, Epoxy, Unsaturated polyester, Alkyds. Natural and synthetic rubbers: Recovery of NR hydrocarbon from latex, SBR, Nitrile, CR, CSM, EPDM, IIR, BR, Silicone, TPE.

Section 4: Polymer blends and composites

Difference between blends and composites, their significance, choice of polymers for blending, blend miscibility-miscible and immiscible blends, thermodynamics, phase morphology, polymer alloys, polymer eutectics, plastic-plastic, rubber-plastic and rubber-rubber blends, FRP, particulate, long and short fibre reinforced composites.

Section 5: Polymer Technology

Polymer compounding-need and significance, different compounding ingredients for rubber and plastics, cross-linking and vulcanization, vulcanization kinetics.

Section 6: Polymer rheology

Flow of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, different flow equations, dependence of shear modulus on temperature, molecular/segmental deformations at different zones and transitions. Measurements of rheological parameters by capillary rotating, parallel plate, cone-plate rheometer. Viscoelasticity-creep and stress relaxations, mechanical models, control of rheological characteristics through compounding, rubber curing in parallel plate viscometer, ODR and MDR.

Section 7: Polymer processing

Compression molding, transfer molding, injection molding, blow molding, reaction injection molding, extrusion, pultrusion, calendaring, rotational molding, thermoforming, rubber processing in two-roll mill, internal mixer.

Section 8: Polymer testing

Mechanical-static and dynamic tensile, flexural, compressive, abrasion, endurance, fatigue, hardness, tear, resilience, impact, toughness. Conductivity-thermal and electrical, dielectric constant, dissipation factor, power factor, electric resistance, surface resistivity, volume resistivity, swelling, ageing resistance, environmental stress cracking resistance.

GATE 2016 Thermodynamics (XE-E) Syllabus

GATE 2016 General Aptitude Syllabus - Common for ALL Papers

Section 1: Basic Concepts

Continuum and macroscopic approach; thermodynamic systems (closed and open); thermodynamic properties and equilibrium; state of a system, state postulate for simple compressible substances, state diagrams, paths and processes on state diagrams; concepts of heat and work, different modes of work; zeroth law of thermodynamics; concept of temperature.

Section 2: First Law of Thermodynamics

Concept of energy and various forms of energy; internal energy, enthalpy; specific heats; first law applied to elementary processes, closed systems and control volumes, steady and unsteady flow analysis.

Section 3: Second Law of Thermodynamics

Limitations of the first law of thermodynamics, concepts of heat engines and heat pumps/refrigerators, Kelvin-Planck and Clausius statements and their equivalence; reversible and irreversible processes; Carnot cycle and Carnot principles/theorems; thermodynamic temperature scale; Clausius inequality and concept of entropy; microscopic interpretation of entropy, the principle of increase of entropy, T-s diagrams; second law analysis of control volume; availability and irreversibility; third law of thermodynamics.

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Section 4: Properties of Pure Substances

Thermodynamic properties of pure substances in solid, liquid and vapor phases; P-vT behaviour of simple compressible substances, phase rule, thermodynamic property tables and charts, ideal and real gases, ideal gas equation of state and van der Waals equation of state; law of corresponding states, compressibility factor and generalized compressibility chart.

Section 5: Thermodynamic Relations

T-ds relations, Helmholtz and Gibbs functions, Gibbs relations, Maxwell relations, Joule-Thomson coefficient, coefficient of volume expansion, adiabatic and isothermal compressibilities, Clapeyron and Clapeyron-Clausius equations.

Section 6: Thermodynamic Cycles

Carnot vapor cycle, ideal Rankine cycle, Rankine reheat cycle, air-standard Otto cycle, air-standard Diesel cycle, air-standard Brayton cycle, vapor-compression refrigeration cycle.

Section 7: Ideal Gas Mixtures

Dalton’s and Amagat’s laws, properties of ideal gas mixtures, air-water vapor mixtures and simple thermodynamic processes involving them; specific and relative humidities, dew point and wet bulb temperature, adiabatic saturation temperature, psychrometric chart.

GATE 2016 Solid Mechanics (XE-D) Syllabus

GATE 2016 General Aptitude Syllabus - Common for ALL Papers

Equivalent force systems; free-body diagrams; equilibrium equations; analysis of determinate trusses and frames; friction; particle kinematics and dynamics; dynamics of rigid bodies under planar motion; law of conservation of energy; law of conservation of momentum.

Stresses and strains; principal stresses and strains; Mohr’s circle for plane stress and plane strain; generalized Hooke’s Law; elastic constants; thermal stresses; theories of failure.

Axial, shear and bending moment diagrams; axial, shear and bending stresses; combined stresses; deflection (for symmetric bending); torsion in circular shafts; thin walled pressure vessels; energy methods (Castigliano’s Theorems); Euler buckling.

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Free vibration of single degree of freedom systems.

GATE 2016 Materials Science (XE-C) Syllabus

GATE 2016 General Aptitude Syllabus - Common for ALL Papers

Section 1: Processing of Materials

Powder synthesis, sintering, chemical methods, crystal growth techniques, zone refining, preparation of nanoparticles and thin films

Section 2: Characterisation Techniques

X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic techniques like UV-vis, IR, Raman. Optical and Electron microscopy

Section 3: Structure and Imperfections

Crystal symmetry, point groups, space groups, indices of planes, close packing in solids, bonding in materials, coordination and radius ratio concepts, point defects, dislocations, grain boundaries, surface energy and equilibrium shapes of crystals

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Section 4: Thermodynamics and Kinetics

Phase rule, phase diagrams, solid solutions, invariant reactions, lever rule, basic heat treatment of metals, solidification and phase transformations, Fick’s laws of diffusion, mechanisms of diffusion, temperature dependence of diffusivity

Section 5: Properties of Materials

Mechanical Properties: Stress-strain response of metallic, ceramic and polymer materials, yield strength, tensile strength and modulus of elasticity, toughness, plastic deformation, fatigue, creep and fracture Electronic Properties:Free electron theory, Fermi energy, density of states, elements of band theory, semiconductors, Hall effect, dielectric behaviour, piezo, ferro, pyroelectricmaterials Magnetic Properties: Origin of magnetism in metallic and ceramic materials, paramagnetism, diamagnetism, ferro and ferrimagnetism Thermal Properties: Specific heat, thermal conductivity and thermal expansion, thermoelectricity Optical Properties: Refractive index, absorption and transmission of electromagnetic radiation in solids, electrooptic and magnetoopticmaterials, spontaneous and stimulated emission, gas and solid state lasers

Section 6: Material types

Concept of amorphous, single crystals and polycrystalline materials, crystallinity and its effect on physical properties, metal, ceramic, polymers, classification of polymers, polymerization, structure and properties, additives for polymer products, processing and applications, effect of environment on materials, composites

Section 7: Environmental Degradation

Corrosion, oxidation and prevention

Section 8: Elements of Quantum Mechanics and Mathematics

Basics of quantum mechanics, quantum mechanical treatment of electrical, optical and thermal properties of materials, analytical solid geometry, differentiation and integration, differential equations, vectors and tensors, matrices, Fourier series, complex analysis, probability and statistics

GATE 2016 Fluid Mechanics (XE-B) Syllabus

GATE 2016 General Aptitude Syllabus - Common for ALL Papers

Section 1: Flow and Fluid Properties

viscosity, relationship between stress and strain-rate for Newtonian fluids, incompressible and compressible flows, differences between laminar and turbulent flows. Hydrostatics: Buoyancy, manometry, forces on submerged bodies.

Section 2: Kinematics

Eulerian and Lagrangian description of fluids motion, concept of local and convective accelerations, steady and unsteady flows.

Section 3: Integral analysis

Control volume analysis for mass, momentum and energy.

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Section 4: Differential Analysis

Differential equations of mass and momentum for incompressible flows: inviscid - Euler equation and viscous flows - Navier-Stokes equations, concept of fluid rotation, vorticity, stream function, Exact solutions of Navier-Stokes equation for Couette Flow and Poiseuille flow.

Section 5: Inviscid flows

Bernoulli’s equation - assumptions and applications, potential function, Elementary plane flows - uniform flow, source, sink and doublet and their superposition for potential flow past simple geometries.

Section 6: Dimensional analysis

Concept of geometric, kinematic and dynamic similarity, some common non-dimensional parameters and their physical significance: Reynolds number, Froude number and Mach number.

Section 7: Internal flows

Fully developed pipe flow, empirical relations for laminar and turbulent flows: friction factor and Darcy-Weisbach relation.

Section 8: Prandtl boundary layer equations

Concept and assumptions, qualitative idea of boundary layer and separation, streamlined and bluff bodies, drag and lift forces. Flow measurements: Basic ideas of flow measurement using venturimeter, pitot-static tube and orifice plate.

GATE 2016 Engineering Mathematics (XE-A) Syllabus

GATE 2016 General Aptitude Syllabus - Common for ALL Papers

Section 1: Linear Algebra

Algebra of matrices; Inverse and rank of a matrix; System of linear equations; Symmetric, skew-symmetric and orthogonal matrices; Determinants; Eigenvalues and eigenvectors; Diagonalisation of matrices; Cayley-Hamilton Theorem.

Section 2: Calculus

Functions of single variable: Limit, continuity and differentiability; Mean value theorems; Indeterminate forms and L'Hospital's rule; Maxima and minima; Taylor's theorem; Fundamental theorem and mean value-theorems of integral calculus; Evaluation of definite and improper integrals; Applications of definite integrals to evaluate areas and volumes.
Functions of two variables: Limit, continuity and partial derivatives; Directional derivative; Total derivative; Tangent plane and normal line; Maxima, minima and saddle points; Method of Lagrange multipliers; Double and triple integrals, and their applications.
Sequence and series: Convergence of sequence and series; Tests for convergence; Power series; Taylor's series; Fourier Series; Half range sine and cosine series.

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Section 3: Vector Calculus

Gradient, divergence and curl; Line and surface integrals; Green's theorem, Stokes theorem and Gauss divergence theorem (without proofs).

Section 3: Complex variables

Analytic functions; Cauchy-Riemann equations; Line integral, Cauchy's integral theorem and integral formula (without proof); Taylor's series and Laurent series; Residue theorem (without proof) and its applications.

Section 4: Ordinary Differential Equations

First order equations (linear and nonlinear); Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients; Second order linear differential equations with variable coefficients; Method of variation of parameters; Cauchy-Euler equation; Power series solutions; Legendre polynomials, Bessel functions of the first kind and their properties.

Section 5: Partial Differential Equations

Classification of second order linear partial differential equations; Method of separation of variables; Laplace equation; Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations.

Section 6: Probability and Statistics

Axioms of probability; Conditional probability; Bayes' Theorem; Discrete and continuous random variables: Binomial, Poisson and normal distributions; Correlation and linear regression.

Section 7: Numerical Methods

Solution of systems of linear equations using LU decomposition, Gauss elimination and Gauss-Seidel methods; Lagrange and Newton's interpolations, Solution of polynomial and transcendental equations by Newton-Raphson method; Numerical integration by trapezoidal rule, Simpson's rule and Gaussian quadrature rule; Numerical solutions of first order differential equations by Euler's method and 4th order Runge-Kutta method.

GATE 2016 Textile Engineering and Fibre Science (TF) Syllabus

GATE 2016 General Aptitude Syllabus - Common for ALL Papers


Linear Algebra: Matrices and Determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.
Calculus: Limit, continuity and differentiability; Partial Derivatives; Maxima and minima; Sequences and series; Test for convergence; Fourier series.
Vector Calculus: Gradient; Divergence and Curl; Line; surface and volume integrals; Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
Differential Equations: Linear and non-linear first order ODEs; Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients; Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations; Laplace transforms; PDEs –Laplace, heat and wave equations. Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Random variables; Poisson, normal and binomial distributions; Correlation and regression analysis.
Numerical Methods: Solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations; integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule; single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

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Section 1: Textile Fibers

Classification of textile fibers; Essential requirements of fiber forming polymers; Gross and fine structure of natural fibers like cotton, wool, silk, Introduction to important bast fibres; properties and uses of natural and man- made fibres including carbon, aramid and ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers; physical and chemical methods of fiber and blend identification and blend analysis. Molecular architecture, amorphous and crystalline phases, glass transition, plasticization, crystallization, melting, factors affecting Tg and Tm; Production process of viscose and other regenerated cellulosic fibres such as polynosic, lyocell. Polymerization of nylon-6, nylon-66, poly (ethylene terephthalate), polyacrylonitrile and polypropylene; Melt Spinning processes for PET, polyamide and polypropylene; Wet and dry spinning processes for viscose and acrylic fibres; post spinning operations such as drawing, heat setting, tow- to-top conversion and different texturing methods. Methods of investigating fibre structure e.g., Density, X-ray diffraction, birefringence, optical and electron microscopy, I.R. spectroscopy, thermal methods (DSC, DMA/TMA, TGA); structure and morphology of man-made fibres, mechanical properties of fibres, moisture sorption in fibres; fibre structure and property correlation.

Section 2: Yarn manufacture, Yarn structure and Properties

Principles of opening, cleaning and mixing/blending of fibrous materials, working principle of modern opening and cleaning equipment; the technology of carding, carding of cotton and synthetic fibres; Drafting operation, roller and apron drafting principle, causes of mass irregularity introduced by drafting; roller arrangements in drafting systems; principles of cotton combing, combing cycle, mechanism and function, combing efficiency, lap preparation; recent developments in comber; Roving production, mechanism of bobbin building, roving twist; Principle of ring spinning, forces acting on yarn and traveler, ring & traveler designs, mechanism of cop formation, causes of end breakages; Working principle of ring doubler and two for one twister, single and folded yarn twist, properties of double yarns, production of core spun yarn; Principles of compact, rotor, air jet, air vortex, core, wrap, twist less and friction spinning. Yarn contraction, yarn diameter, specific volume & packing coefficient; Twist factor, twist strength relationship in spun yarns; Fibre configuration and orientation in yarn; Cause of fibre migration and its estimation; Irregularity index; Structure property relationship of compact ring, rotor, air-jet and friction spun yarns.

Section 3: Fabric manufacture, Structure and Properties

Principles of winding processes and machines, random, precision and step precision winding, package faults and their remedies; Yarn clearers and tensioners; Different systems of yarn splicing; Features of modern cone winding machines; Different types of warping creels; features of modern beam and sectional warping machines; Different sizing systems, sizing of spun and filament yarns, sizing machines; Principles of pirn winding processes and machines. Primary and secondary motions of loom, cam design & kinematics of sley, effect of their settings and timings on fabric formation, fabric appearance and weaving performance; Dobby and jacquard shedding; Mechanics of weft insertion with shuttle, warp and weft stop motions, warp protection, weft replenishment; Principles of weft insertion systems of shuttle-less weaving machines; Principles of multiphase and circular looms. Principles of weft and warp knitting, basic weft and warp knitted structures; Classification, production, properties and application of nonwoven fabrics, principle of web formation & bonding. Basic woven fabric constructions and their derivatives; crepe, cord, terry, gauze, leno and double cloth constructions. Peirce’s equations for fabric geometry; elastica model of plain woven fabrics; thickness, cover and maximum set of woven fabrics.

Section 4: Textile Testing

Sampling techniques, sample size and sampling errors; Measurement of fibre length, fineness, crimp; measurement of cotton fiber maturity and trash content; High volume fibre testing; Measurement of yarn count, twist and hairiness; Tensile testing of fibers, yarns and fabrics; Evenness testing of slivers, rovings and yarns; Classimat fault analysis; Testing equipment for measurement of fabric properties like thickness, compressibility, air permeability, wetting & wicking, drape, crease recovery, tear strength, bursting strength and abrasion resistance; Instruments and systems for objective evaluation of fabric hand. Statistical analysis of experimental results, frequency distributions, correlation, significance tests, analysis of variance and control charts.

Section 5: Chemical processing

Impurities in natural fibre; Chemistry and practice of preparatory processes for cotton, wool and silk; Mercerization of cotton; Preparatory processes for manmade fibres and their blends. Classification of dyes; Dyeing of cotton, wool, silk, polyester, nylon and acrylic with appropriate dye classes; Dyeing of polyester/cotton and polyester/wool blends; Dyeing machines; Dyeing of cotton knitted fabrics and machines used; Dye fibre interaction; Introduction to thermodynamics and kinetics of dyeing; Methods for determination of wash, light and rubbing fastness. Styles of printing; Printing thickeners including synthetic thickeners; Printing auxiliaries; Printing of cotton with reactive dyes, wool, silk, nylon with acid and metal complex dyes, Printing of polyester with disperse dyes; Pigment printing; Resist and discharge printing of cotton, silk and polyester; Transfer printing of polyester; Inkjet printing. Mechanical finishing of cotton. Stiff, soft, wrinkle resistant, water repellent, flame retardant and enzyme (bio-polishing) finishing of cotton; Milling, decatizing and shrink resistant finishing of wool; Antistatic and soil release finishing; Heat setting of synthetic fabrics; Minimum application techniques; Pollution control and treatment of effluents.

GATE 2016 Biotechnology (BT) Syllabus

GATE 2016 General Aptitude Syllabus - Common for ALL Papers

Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrices and determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.
Calculus: Limit, continuity and differentiability, Partial derivatives, Maxima and minima, Sequences and series, Test for convergence, Fourier Series.
Differential Equations: Linear and nonlinear first order ODEs, higher order ODEs with constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Laplace transforms, PDE-Laplace, heat and wave equations.
Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson, normal and binomial distributions, Correlation and regression analysis.
Numerical Methods: Solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations, Integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, Single and multistep methods for differential equations.

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Section 2: General Biotechnology

Biochemistry: Biomolecules-structure and functions; Biological membranes, structure, action potential and transport processes; Enzymes- classification, kinetics and mechanism of action; Basic concepts and designs of metabolism (carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids and nucleic acids) photosynthesis, respiration and electron transport chain; Bioenergetics
Microbiology: Viruses- structure and classification; Microbial classification and diversity(bacterial, algal and fungal); Methods in microbiology; Microbial growth and nutrition; Aerobic and anaerobic respiration; Nitrogen fixation; Microbial diseases and host-pathogen interaction
Cell Biology: Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure; Cell cycle and cell growth control; Cell-Cell communication, Cell signaling and signal transduction
Molecular Biology and Genetics: Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes; Mutations and mutagenesis; Nucleic acid replication, transcription, translation and their regulatory mechanisms in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Mendelian inheritance; Gene interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping; Extra chromosomal inheritance; Microbial genetics (plasmids, transformation, transduction, conjugation); Horizontal gene transfer and Transposable elements; RNA interference; DNA damage and repair; Chromosomal variation; Molecular basis of genetic diseases
Analytical Techniques: Principles of microscopy-light, electron, fluorescent and confocal; Centrifugation- high speed and ultra; Principles of spectroscopy-UV, visible, CD, IR, FTIR, Raman, MS,NMR; Principles of chromatography- ion exchange, gel filtration, hydrophobic interaction, affinity, GC,HPLC, FPLC; Electrophoresis; Microarray
Immunology: History of Immunology; Innate, humoral and cell mediated immunity; Antigen; Antibody structure and function; Molecular basis of antibody diversity; Synthesis of antibody and secretion; Antigen-antibody reaction; Complement; Primary and secondary lymphoid organ; B and T cells and macrophages; Major histocompatibility complex (MHC); Antigen processing and presentation; Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody; Regulation of immune response; Immune tolerance; Hypersensitivity; Autoimmunity; Graft versus host reaction.
Bioinformatics: Major bioinformatic resources and search tools; Sequence and structure databases; Sequence analysis (biomolecular sequence file formats, scoring matrices, sequence alignment, phylogeny);Data mining and analytical tools for genomic and proteomic studies; Molecular dynamics and simulations (basic concepts including force fields, protein-protein, protein-nucleic acid, protein-ligand interaction)

Section 3: Recombinant DNA Technology

Restriction and modification enzymes; Vectors; plasmid, bacteriophage and other viral vectors, cosmids, Ti plasmid, yeast artificial chromosome; mammalian and plant expression vectors; cDNA and genomic DNA library; Gene isolation, cloning and expression ; Transposons and gene targeting; DNA labeling; DNA sequencing; Polymerase chain reactions; DNA fingerprinting; Southern and northern blotting; In-situ hybridization; RAPD, RFLP; Site-directed mutagenesis; Gene transfer technologies; Gene therapy

Section 4: Plant and Animal Biotechnology

Totipotency; Regeneration of plants; Plant growth regulators and elicitors; Tissue culture and Cell suspension culture system: methodology, kinetics of growth and, nutrient optimization; Production of secondary metabolites by plant suspension cultures; Hairy root culture; transgenic plants; Plant products of industrial importance Animal cell culture; media composition and growth conditions; Animal cell and tissue preservation; Anchorage and non-anchorage dependent cell culture; Kinetics of cell growth; Micro & macro-carrier culture; Hybridoma technology; Stem cell technology; Animal cloning; Transgenic animals

Section 5: Bioprocess Engineering and Process Biotechnology

Chemical engineering principles applied to biological system, Principle of reactor design, ideal and non-ideal multiphase bioreactors, mass and heat transfer; Rheology of fermentation fluids, Aeration and agitation; Media formulation and optimization; Kinetics of microbial growth, substrate utilization and product formation; Sterilization of air and media; Batch, fed-batch and continuous processes; Various types of microbial and enzyme reactors; Instrumentation control and optimization; Unit operations in solid-liquid separation and liquid-liquid extraction; Process scale-up, economics and feasibility analysis Engineering principle of bioprocessing- Upstream production and downstream; Bioprocess design and development from lab to industrial scale; Microbial, animal and plant cell culture platforms; Production of biomass and primary/secondary metabolites; Biofuels, Bioplastics, industrial enzymes, antibiotics; Large scale production and purification of recombinant proteins; Industrial application of chromatographic and membrane based bioseparation methods; Immobilization of biocatalysts (enzymes and cells) for bioconversion processes; Bioremediation-Aerobic and anaerobic processes for stabilization of solid / liquid wastes